The Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed.) (CMOS) has two systems:
Sources are cited with sequentially-numbered notes creating a unique note number for each time a source is cited either as a footnote at the bottom or the page or an endnote at the end of the paper. Provide the full note the first time you cite a source and use the shorter note for subsequent citations.
Example of a first note and a shortened subsequent note:
1 Anne Beamish, “A Garden in the Street: The Introduction of Street Trees in Boston and New York,” Studies in the History of Gardens & Designed Landscapes 38, no. 1 (January 2, 2018): 42, https://doi.org/10.1080/14601176.2017.1281034.
2 Beamish, “A Garden in the Street,” 43.
Example of a bibliography entry at the end of the paper:
Note: In some cases, your professor may allow you to use the shortened in-text notes for all notes when a bibliography is included or not require a bibliography. If unsure of the requirements, it is safest to include both the longer first note along with the bibliography at the end of the paper.
With this system, source citations consist of two components, an in-text citation and a corresponding reference list citation for each of the in-text citations at the end of the paper (tiltled References or Works Cited). Do not include sources in the reference list that are not cited in the body of your paper.
1. In-text citation
Example of a parenthetical citation: . . . (Beamish 2018, 42).
Example when the author's name appears in the text: Beamish (2018, 42) discussed . . .
2. Reference list
Example References citation:
Beamish, Anne. 2018. “A Garden in the Street: The Introduction of Street Trees in Boston and New York.” Studies in the History of Gardens & Designed Landscapes 38 (1): 38–56. https://doi.org/10.1080/14601176.2017.1281034.
Emmanuel College Library
Citation Managers allows you to easily gather, organize, store, and share sources and to instantly generate citations and bibliographies.